Larger kidney stones are often surgically removed. Endoscopic removal of kidney or urinary stones is usually carried out under general anesthetic with the patient in the lithotomy position (on their back with legs spread apart). With the help of an endoscope, fine instruments are inserted through the urethra and bladder and up into the ureter until they reach the stone. The stone is then broken up, either mechanically or by laser, so that the pieces can be excreted or removed endoscopically using small forceps or baskets. The technical term for this endoscopic treatment is ureterorenoscopy (URS), or retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) if the stone is located in the kidney. Usually the patient can leave the hospital after a recovery time of two days. 
At the end of this endoscopic operation, a ureteral stent (double-J catheter) is usually inserted under general anesthetic to prevent any obstruction of the urine flow and to avoid putting any strain on the patient. The double-J catheter is removed again in an outpatient procedure after one to two weeks. 
http://www.maestro-portal.eu/procedure/detail/1 (Dornier laser)
http://www.maestro-portal.eu/procedure/ (Dornier laser)
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